Курс Английский через Савитри

Английский через «Савитри». Курс 1: Урок 22; пояснение значения слова «self»

All here was known by a spiritual sense:
Thought was not there but a knowledge near and one
Seized on all things by a moved identity,
A sympathy of self with other selves,
The touch of consciousness on consciousness
And being’s look on being with inmost gaze
And heart laid bare to heart without walls of speech
And the unanimity of seeing minds
In myriad forms luminous with the one God.

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Грамматический перевод:

Все здесь было вЕдомо духовным чувствованием:
Мысли не было, однако знание, близкое и единое,
Постигало все (Охватывало все) через [особое] откликавшееся [другим] тождество,*
Со-чувствие «я» с другими «я» (Взаимородство души с другими душами,
Отзывчивость души другим душам) —
[Это] прикосновение сознания к сознанию,
И взгляд бытия на бытие самым глубинным прозрением,
И сердце, обнажаемое перед сердцем без стен речи,
И всесогласие (единовосприятие, единочувствие, единодушие) видящих умов
В мириадах форм, светящихся (просвещенных) [этим] единым Богом.

* Это предложение может, в принципе, пониматься и в таком смысле:
Там не мысль, но знание, близкое и единое,
Постигало все через откликавшееся другим тождество…

Литературный перевод:

Все здесь было вЕдомо духовным чувствованием:
Мысли не было, однако особое знание, близкое и единое,
Постигало и охватывало все через некое откликавшееся другим тождество,
Тонкое взаимородство и со-чувствие сути каждого с сутью других —
Прикосновение сознания к сознанию,
И взгляд бытия на бытие самым глубинным прозреванием,
И сердце, обнажаемое перед сердцем без стен речи,
И единосущность видящих умов
В мириадах форм, просветленно сияющих всем этим единым Богом.

Поэтический перевод:

Все постигалось здесь духовным чувством:
Не мысль, но знанье проницало все,
Родством, единством, тождеством живым,
Со-чувствием души с душой других —
Соитие сознания с сознаньем,
И бытия прозренье бытием,
И обнаженность сердца перед сердцем
Без стен речей, глубинное согласье
И сопричастность видящих умов
Сияли в сонмах форм единым Богом.

Примечания:

Снова обратите внимание на неопределенные артикли перед identity, sympathy. Они также перекликаются с артиклями перед sense и knowledge — перед двумя последними неопр.артикли более характерны, но тоже в той или иной мере передают в этом контексте, что имеется в виду некое особое, своеобразное чувствование, знание, тождество, со-чувствие или родство душ.

Обратите внимание на перевод определения moved [identity]. Первым побуждением будет перевести его от глагола to move в значении «двигаться» — движимое тождество, подвижное тождество и т.д. — но это неверный перевод: to move может также иметь значение «волновать», «трогать», «растрогать» и т.д. Здесь, судя по контексту, оно употреблено именно в этом значении. Посмотрите, как этот смысловой объем раскрыт в переводах.

Также обратите внимание как я раскрываю смысл слова sympathy. Для русскоязычного человека первое побуждение перевести его как «симпатия»— но здесь это наименее вероятный вариант (хотя легкий его оттенок имеется в таких словах как родство душ или со-чувствие, со-чувствование).

Еще обратите внимание, как раскрываются в переводах оттенки слов self в этом контексте.

Опред.артикль the перед touch говорит о том, что здесь раскрывается смысл того, о чем говорилось в первых строках — то есть речь идет об уже известном нам предмете.

Being может в английском переводиться и как существо и как бытие. Если бы здесь имелось в виду «существо», то перед being стоял бы неопр.артикль a.

Gaze означает пристальное вглядывание.

To lay bare — стандартный оборот, означающий «обнажать».
Unanimity образовано от латинских основ ūn-us единый + animus дух, разумное начало, разум, мысль, душа, чувство, ощущение, характер, натура, осознанность, личность. Смысловой объем последнего достаточно точно передается английским mind, которое также может иметь почти все эти значения. Этот очень широкий смысловой объем я постарался раскрыть различными средствами в трех этих переводах.

Luminous может означать как светящийся, так и просвещенный.

Артикль the перед God говорит о том, что все вышеперечисленное было проявлением единого Бога во всех этих формах. То есть одним этим артиклем показывается, что все это — единый Бог в мириадах этих форм.

Вопрос: Словарь МультиЛекс 2.0, предлагает перевод слова sympathy не только как сочувствие, сострадание или симпатия, но и как соответствие и гармония. Если души гармоничны, то они и симпатизируют и сострадают друг другу. Как вы считаете, можно взять слово гармония в данной строке?

A sympathy of self with other selves,
В гармонии сливались души с другой душою,

Могли бы вы более подробно рассказать и о self, часто просто не знаешь как лучше его перевести.

Ответ: На мой взгляд, в прямом значении как гармония его здесь переводить все же не совсем правильно. Все же для этого есть свое слово harmony. Но, конечно, этот оттенок лада, родства, общности, со-чувствия или едино-чувствия между душами — все это здесь присутствует. Вот почему практически нереально переводить Савитри — слишком много вот таких смысловых оттенков играют и взаимодействуют в разных словах и фразах Савитри. Невероятно многогранный и многомерный текст! Вот только тремя переводами, по моему ощущению, можно в значительной мере передать эти смысловые объемы и нюансы.

self — выражает принцип личности, индивидуальности — все, что связано с «я» в разных сочетаниях и значениях — «я», само, самость, суть, сущность, личность, персона, субъект и также эго, своекорыстие и т.д.

есть еще одно интересное его использование, упоминание которого я не встречал в словарях. Например, в Савитри есть такая строка о Высшем Едином:
Page: 305

Although more near to us than nearness’ self

Я много лет не мог понять, что же это за такой невероятный образ:

Хоть [это Высшее Единое] ближе нам, чем «я» (суть, самость) близости…

И вот потом где-то случайно узнал, что в таких случаях self используется в своего рода идеоматическом выражении, которое переводится, как в данном случае:

Хоть [это Высшее Единое] ближе нам, чем сама близость…

Вот так все просто оказывается 🙂 В Савитри очень много таких грамматических тонкостей. И когда у переводчиков не хватает знаний, они сочиняют всевозможные и часто практически бессмысленные конструкции, приписывая их Шри Ауробиндо 🙂 Правильное понимание Савитри требует глубочайшего знания английского языка и английской грамматики в частности 🙂

Есть еще некоторые значения у self, но они к этому его главному употреблению, о котором вы спрашиваете, имеет мало отношения.
Можете посмотреть в Мультилексе self II, III, IV, self-

А самые полные пояснения по поводу любого английского слова можно найти в Оксфордском толковом словаре, о котором я писал. Вот статья из него о self (self как глагол рассматривается в отдельной статье). Сначала даются формы употребления и история развития каждого употребления слова — от первого известного его упоминания в литературных источниках и до первого его употребления в современной форме, с приведением цитат этих его употреблений — все известные промежуточные формы. Крестик перед статьей означает, что это устаревшее его употребление. Вот такой суперсловарь! В русском пока такое даже не снилось. Английская скрупулезность и научная точность дали колоссальное продвижение этой нации и всей нашей цивилизации. Это очень явно видно и по словарю. Главное не устать читать даже одну словарную статью о self 🙂 но уж слишком это емкое понятие в английском 🙂

self, pron., a., and n.

(sɛlf)

Forms: 1– self; 1–4 silf, 1–3 sylf, seolf, (2 solf, suelf), 2–3 sulf, 5–7 selfe, 6 silfe; 5–6 selph, (6 sealf, seylffe, sill); 1 selfa, silfa, etc., 2 seolve, silve, 2–5 selve, 3 sulfe, sulve; 2–5 (orig. oblique cases) selven, (4 selvin, selfine, selwyn), 9 dial. sen, 6– Sc. sell. pl.: 1 selfe, silfe, etc., weak selfan, etc., 2–5 selven, selve, (2 seolve), 5–6 selfs, (6 selfis, selfes), 9 dial. sens, 6– selves.

[Com. Teut.: OE. self strong, selfa wk., corresponds to OFris. self str., selva weak, OS. self strong, selƀo weak (MLG. sulf, self, silf, solf), Du. zelf, weak -zelve, -zelfde, OHG. selp strong, selbo weak (MHG. selp, selbe, mod.G. selb, selbe), ON. only strong sialf-r (Icel. sjálfr, Sw. sjelv, Norw. sjøl, sjølv, Da. selv), Goth. silba wk.:—OTeut. *selƀo-, selƀon-. The ultimate etymology is obscure; many scholars regard the word as a compound of the pronominal stem se- (in Goth. s-ik, G. sich; cf. L. sē).
In Goth. and Scandinavian the primary sense (= L. ipse) is the only one that exists; the sense of ‘same’, found in Eng. and the other WGer. langs., was developed from this in collocations where the notion of identity implied by a demonstrative was emphasized by the additon of self (thus the OE. se selfa man þe may be rendered either ‘the very man who’ or ‘the same man who’).]

A.A pron. and pronominal adj. In the sense of the L. ipse. In concord with a n. or pron., to indicate emphatically that the reference is to the person or thing mentioned and not, or not merely, to some other.

1.A.1 With n. Obs. exc. arch.; superseded by the use of the ‘emphatic pronouns’, himself, herself, itself, themselves, or, after a def. art. or demonstrative, by (the, this, that) very. †a.A.1.a following the n. (immediately or with interposed words).

In OE. the strong and the weak declension were both common in this use, and traces of the twofold inflexion remain even in early mod.Eng. From the 12th c. the uninflected form (prob. apprehended as adv.) was often used after a n. in an oblique case.

a  900 Cynewulf Crist 11 Nu is þam weorce þearf þæt se Cræftᴁa cume and se Cyning sylfa and þonne ᴁebete‥hus under hrofe. Ibid. 134 Nu is rodera Weard, God sylfa mid us. c 1055 Byrhtferth’s Handboc in Anglia VIII. 320 Þæt we ᴁeearnion æt criste sylfum ece mede. c 1175 Pater Noster 234 in Lamb. Hom. 67 He fondede god solf mid his wrenche. c 1175 Lamb. Hom. 107 We maȝen‥habban us on ende þene eche wurðment a mid gode seoluan. a 1225 Ancr. R. 186 Ase dude ure Louerd sulf, & alle his haluwen. a 1225 Leg. Kath. 58 Euchan bi his euene, biforen Maxence seolf, wurðgede his maumez. a 1300 Cursor M. 11985 And o lame o þaa lakes selue Wit handes made he sparus tuelue. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 236 Þe bygynnyng of alle þis proces Ryght knawyng of a man self es. 13‥ Gaw. & Gr. Knt. 51 With all þe wele of þe worlde þay woned þer samen, þe most kyd knyȝtez vnder kryste seluen. 1377 Langl. P. Pl. B. i. 202 Loue is leche of lyf and nexte owre lorde selue. c 1450 Godstow Reg. 365 By the auctorite I-yove to them of the pope self. 1509 Fisher Fun. Serm. Hen. VII, Wks. (1876) 274 Tyl he came vnto the place selfe where he receyued the sacrament. 1532 More Confut. Tindale Wks. 473/2 Thys is the thing selfe that is in debate. 1541 Wyatt Declar. to Privy Council Wks. (1816) 282 In searching Mason’s papers, the minute thereof was found; and after‥the letter self came to his hands. 1548 Geste Agst. Priv. Masse H iv b, Dyd not christ selue alwaye pray to hys father. 1566 in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. i. II. 208 We fynde the same confirmed by the parties self that were ther present. 1579 E. K. Spenser’s Sheph. Cal. June 18 gloss., This is‥spoken of the Poete selfe.

b.A.1.b Preceding the n. (immediately or with interposed words). Now only arch. rare.

c  900 tr. Bæda’s Hist. i. Introd. (1890) 26 Under þam sylfum norðdæle middanᴁeardes. a 1000 Elene 69 Þa wearð on slæpe sylfum ætywed Þam casere, þær he on corðre swæf. a 1250 Owl & Night. 746 (Jesus MS.) Ich graunti þat þu go to dome To-vore the sulve [Cotton MS. sulfe] Pope of Rome. a 1300 Cursor M. 22597 Þe self angels [Gött. þe seluen angelis] sal quake vnqueme for dute of him þat all sal deme. c 1374 Chaucer Boeth. i. pr. i. (1868) 5 And when sche hef hir heued heyer sche perced[e] þe selue heuene. c 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints v. (Johannes) 508 Quhen sancte Iohne‥for selfe eld ves sa wery þat [etc.]. c 1375 Barbour Bruce vii. 126 (Edin. MS.) Thai persauit‥That he wes the selwyn Robert King. 1387 Trevisa Higden (Rolls) VII. 151 Oþer elles oþere hadde possessioun, in so moche þat þe self offrynges were reft fro þe autters under naked swerdes. c 1430 Syr Gener. (Roxb.) 3857 Thurgh [Generides] shelde‥He smote it in to the sokett, That the Iren with the hawberk met Right ageyn the self brest. c 1450 Myrr. our Ladye 197 Vere caritatis. God ys the louer of very charite, and god is the selfe charyte. 1472–3 Rolls of Parlt. VI. 34/1 That the said copie of the said Recorde be taken, demed, and had for the self Recorde. a 1483 Liber Niger Domus Edw. IV in Househ. Ord. (1790) 61 Also they have oversyght for the Thesaurers partie in every office, bothe of the selfe stuffe, and the ministration, how it passith. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 155 b, In theyr olde age before ye houre of deth, or in the selfe poynt of deth. 1531 Elyot Gov. i. xxv. (1880) I. 267 Discretio in latine‥as it is communely used, it is nat only like to Modestie, but it is the selfe Modestie. a 1569 A. Kingsmill Man’s Est. x. (1580) 61 Christ hath hereby approved hymselfe the true anointed, the self Saviour, and verie Jesus. 1610 J. Guillim Heraldry i. viii. (1660) 46 If a man do perform any praiseworthy Action the self deed will sufficiently commend him though he hold his peace. c 1730 Ramsay Address of Thanks xii, Even sell K. T. that gart us ban, And eke that setting-dog his man. 1848 Lowell Biglow Papers Ser. i. ix. ad fin., I confess to a satisfaction in the self act of preaching.

†c.A.1.c (? As adv.: cf. Ger. selbst.) Used, uninflected, before an article or poss. pron. Obs. rare.

c  1250 Gen. & Ex. 1806 Wulde he non senwe siðen eten Self his kinde nile ðat wune forgeten. Ibid. 2610 God haued swilc fair-hed him geuen, ðat self ðe fon it leten liuen.

†2.A.2 With pers. pronoun in the nominative. Obs.; rare after OE.

c  897 K. Ælfred Gregory’s Past. C. xvi. 104 Oft eac ᴁebyreð ðonne se scrift onᴁit ðæs costunga þe he him ondetteð ðæt he eac self bið mid ðæm ilcum ᴁecostod. c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Luke xxiv. 39 Ic sylf hit eom. c 1000 Ags. Ps. lxvii. 4 Doþ siðfæt ðæs‥rihtne ðe he sylfa astah, þam [etc.]. a 1175 Cott. Hom. 229 Ne michti hi alle hin acwelle ᴁef he sylf nold. a 1300 Cursor M. 6096 In mining sal ye hald þis dai, Yee-self and your oxspring ai. Ibid. 2559 Þou wat child haue i self nan. Ibid. 19432 And siþen spak he o þair lagh, Þat þai it cuth noght seluen knau. 1633 P. Fletcher Pisc. Ecl. iv. xx, Self did I see a swain not long ago.

3.A.3 Following a pron. in oblique case. Obs. exc. in himself, herself, themselves. a.A.3.a refl.

c  897 K. Ælfred Gregory’s Past. C. xxxiii. 220 Ðurh þa we forlætað ðone anwald ure selfra. c 1175 Lamb. Hom. 95 Erest he scal hine seolfne wið sunnan isteoran, and seoððan his heorde. c 1200 Vices & Virtues 125 Bute ðu neme riht of ðe seluen of ðe misdades ðe ðu mis-dest. a 1225 Ancr. R. 108 He seið bi him suluen,‥‘Et factus sum sicut homo non audiens’. a 1300 Cursor M. 335 For of him self he toke his euen. Ibid. 16653 Wepe yee noght for me, Bot on yur childer and on yow-self. c 1380 Wyclif Sel. Wks. I. 172 But oo firstnesse of love shulde we have to us silf, and to oure fadir and oure modir. c 1386 Chaucer Wife’s Prol. 812 But atte laste‥We fille acorded by vs seluen [Camb. MS. seluyn] two. c 1400 Destr. Troy 6322 He‥louyt hym no lesse þen hym lefe seluyn. 1426 Lydg. De Guil. Pilgr. 7762 For to make the sylue strong. c 1460 Fortescue Abs. & Lim. Mon. xi. (1885) 135 Wherby we bith lerned þat it shal⁓not only be goode to owre prince, but also to vs selff, that he be well indowed. 1576 Fleming Panopl. Epist. 24 Wilt thou, Seruius, stay thee selfe.

b.A.3.b Emphasizing a non-reflexive pron.

c  893 K. Ælfred Oros. iii. xi. §5. 146 Þa sende Antigones hiene selfne [Neoptolemus] & his oþerne þeᴁn Polipercon. c 1175 Lamb. Hom. 15 Eower lond ic wulle friþian and eow selfe meȝhan and bi-werian. c 1205 Lay. 493 Mine þralles i mire þeode me suluen þretiað. a 1300 Floriz & Bl. (Hausknecht) 550 Þat he þe helpe in alle helve, Ase he wolde me selve. 1535 Coverdale 1 Macc. viii. 7 How they discomfited greate Antiochus‥: how they toke him self alyue.

†c.A.3.c In agreement with a possessive genitive (expressed or implied by poss. pron.), the word may be rendered ‘own’. Hence the use of the uninflected self in 16–17th c. for: Own, peculiar.

Beowulf 1115 Het ða hildeburh, at hnæfes ade hire selfre suna sweoloðe befæstan. 1516 Will of R. Peke 4 June, She wer fully agrede to for her sill parte, and they agreid to receyve for hir childes part. 1539 Cromwell in Merriman Life & Lett. (1902) II. 175 As he knoweth right well, who at his being here sawe her self visage. 1579 Spenser Sheph. Cal. Sept. 176 Colin clout I wene be his selfe boye. c 1580 Sidney Ps. xxxv, Let their sly witts unwares destruction gett Fall in self pitt, be caught in their own nett. 1585 T. Washington tr. Nicholay’s Voy. iv. xxxi. 153 b, He forbad the often attempting of warres agaynst ones self party or enemies. a 1586 Sidney Arcadia i. (1622) 3 A thing which floated drawing neerer and neerer to the banke; but rather by the favourable working of the sea, then by any selfe industry. 1598 Chapman Hero & L. iv. 185 What her hart Did greatest hold in her selfe greatest part. 1601 R. Johnson Kingd. & Commw. (1603) 163 A people having many selfe fashions and strange kinds of behaviour differing from the rest. 1605 Shakes. Macb. v. viii. 70 His Fiend-like Queene; Who (as ’tis thought) by selfe and violent hands, Tooke off her life. 1632 Lithgow Trav. iv. 158 They Gormandize at their selfe pleasures. 1654 Earl of Monmouth tr. Bentivoglio’s Warrs Flanders 316 He considered that many Towns in Picardy were under the self Forces of Spain.

†4.A.4 In OE. and ME., the nom. self in agreement with the subject of the sentence (n. or pron.) was often preceded by the dative of a pronoun referring to the subject, used pleonastically (the so-called ethic dative); subsequently, self was often put in the dative, agreeing with the pers. pron. This use is now historically represented by certain uses of himself, herself, themselves; some examples of me self, thee self, are given s.vv. myself, thyself.

c  888 K. Ælfred Boeth. xxi, Hi‥weorþaþ him selfe to nauhte. c 1175 Lamb. Hom. 35 Nis þas weorld nawiht ȝe hit iseoð eow seluen. c 1205 Lay. 3315 Vs selve we habbet cokes to quecchen to cuchene, vs sulue we habbet bermen & birles inowe. Ibid. 28484 Þa heo here seolf weore isunken in þe watere. a 1300 K. Horn 45 And þe selue riȝt anon Ne schaltu to dai henne gon. c 1380 Sir Ferumb. 2810 We ous self buþ feynt & pal for hungre & for þerst. c 1380 Wyclif Sel. Wks. II. 125 Pilat seide to hem, Tak ȝe him ȝou self, and do ȝe him on þe cross. c 1430 Chev. Assigne 20 Þey wente vp-on a walle‥Both þe kynge & þe qwene hem selfen to-gedere.

†5.A.5 Used absol. as independent pronoun (= he himself, I myself, etc.). After OE. almost exclusively with pleonastic dative of pronoun, a use now represented by himself 3.

Beowulf 895 Þæt he beahhordes brucan moste selfes dome. a 900 Cynewulf Crist 1115 Eall þis maᴁon him sylfe ᴁeseon þonne. c 1205 Lay. 5246 Al þa kinges þus duden swa heom self demmeden. a 1300 Cursor M. 26738 Hast noght þi scrift on þiskin wis, Bot ilk-a sin be self þou schau. 1585 Jas. VI in Holinshed’s Hist. Scot. (1587) 445/2 A thing hurtfull to none, profitable for selfis, acceptable to God, and vise in the sight of the varld. 1616 B. Jonson Volpone i. ii. Song Wks. I. 454 Selues [ed. 1607 Themselues], and others merry-making.

†6.A.6 Used indefinitely (= oneself) in a proverb.

1546 Heywood Prov. i. viii. Wks. (1562) B iv b, For I did it my selfe: and selfe do, selfe haue. 1579 Gosson Sch. Abuse (Arb.) 46. 1707 J. Stevens tr. Quevedo’s Com. Wks. (1709) 339.

7.A.7 In commercial use (hence jocular or colloq.) substituted for myself, or occas. for himself. spec. written on a cheque or counterfoil.

1758 Johnson Idler No. 33 ⁋21 Mr. H. and self agreed at parting to take a gentle ride. 1829 Lamb Let. to Gillman 30 Nov., He hath‥served for self or substitute the greater parish offices. 1841 Thackeray Gt. Hoggarty Diam. vi, I am, dear Sirs, for self and partners, Yours most faithfully, Samuel Jackson. 1844 Dickens Mart. Chuz. xxvii, B wants a loan.‥ B proposes self and two securities. B is accepted. Two securities give a bond. 1863 S. Hibberd in Intell. Observ. IV. 267 Self and friend took train‥for Leatherhead. 1866 Crump Banking iv. 88 With the exception of those payable to ‘self’, drawn at the bank counter, or paid to an authorised person for the use of the drawer. 1873 D. G. Rossetti Let. 14 July (1967) III. 1192 If however you would prefer the cheque made out to Self as usual‥I will send you another. 1894 Sir J. D. Astley Fifty Yrs. Life II. 31 As both self and wife were fond of seeing life,‥we decided a trip to Baden Baden would be a nice change for us. 1905 Macm. Mag. Dec. 107 Faro‥much resembled the Self and Company still played by children. a 1911 Mod. (Cheque) Pay self or order, Ten Pounds. 1935 G. Heyer Death in Stocks vi. 74 He drew a cheque for a hundred pounds to self on Friday. 1967 C. Watson Lonely Heart 4122 ii. 23 He turned back the counterfoils.‥ The uppermost‥was marked ‘Self’, a withdrawal of four hundred pounds.

B.B adj. I.B.I = same (and in derived senses).

†1.B.I.1 = same a. 1–3. a.B.I.1.a Preceded by dem. pron. or definite article. Obs.

c  900 tr. Bæda’s Hist. iv. xxiii. (1890) 338 Þa wæs in þære seolpan nihte, þætte [etc.]. Ibid. 340 Wæs in þæm seolfan mynstre sumu haliᴁu nunne. c 1000 Ags. Ps. cvii. 10 [cviii. 11] Hwæt! þu eart se sylfa god, þe us synniᴁe iu adrife fram dome. 1297 R. Glouc. (Rolls) 5318 Tueye batayles her after in þis sulfe ȝere Hii smite & at boþe þe heþene maystres were. c 1330 Arth. & Merl. 7396 (Kölbing) [They] helden hem a litel bi hest Vnder þe selue forest. c 1380 Sir Ferumb. 1997 Þay schulleþ haue þe selue dome. a 1400 Prymer (1891) 47 We by sechith, þt by the sadnesse of that selue byleue we be‥defended of alle aduercetees. c 1420 Lessons of Dirige 183 in 26 Pol. Poems 113 He‥fleeþ as shadow,‥Dwelleþ neuere in þe self stat of ouris. 1426 Lydg. De Guil. Pilgr. 3396 Ryht in the sylue wyse. c 1489 Caxton Blanchardyn xv. 51 Thenne the proude pucelle‥vnderstode‥that he was that self knyght that the kisse had taken of her. 1513 Douglas Æneis x. Prol. 31–2 The Son the self thing with the Fader is; The self substans the Haly Gaist, I wys. 1525 Tindale N.T. Prol., That selfe good thynge. c 1530 ― Pathw. Script. Wks. (1573) 378/1 In the Gene. iii. God sayth to the Serpent: I wil put hatred betwen thee and the woman, betwen thy seede and her seede, that selfe sede shall treade thy head vnder foote. 1530 Palsgr. Epist. 7 Instructour to your noble grace in this selfe tong. 1540 Brereton in St. Papers Hen. VIII, III. 206 The Satterday folowing I‥arryved at Tryme, whiche selffe day Occhonor invading thEnglishe pale, burnte Kyldare. 1563 Homilies II. Comm. Pr. & Sacram. 149 b, To pray commonly is for a multitude to aske one & the selfe thyng with one voyce [etc.]. 1581 J. Bell Haddon’s Answ. Osor. 285 b, [He] was requited with the selfe trechery that he offered before. 1588 Shakes. Tit. A. iv. ii. 123 He is your brother Lords, sensibly fed Of that selfe blood that first gaue life to you. 1594 Carew Huarte’s Exam. Wits (1616) 118 Of this selfe opinion with Plato, was a Spanish Gentleman; who [etc.]. c 1611 Chapman Iliad v. 379 Pluto sustaind no lesse By that selfe man, and by a shaft of equall bitternesse. 1632 Lithgow Trav. ix. 387, I neuer saw any of that selfe Nation, to begge bread.

b.B.I.1.b With article omitted. Obs.; rare after OE.

c  1000 Sax. Leechd. II. 72 Wiþ swile ᴁenim gate tyrdlu on scearpum ecede ᴁesoden & on selfe wisan on ᴁedon. c 1375 Lay-Folks Mass-Bk. (MS. B.) 563 On selue manere. 1599 Nashe Lenten Stuff 39 As he was troubled with the falling sicknesse, in his life time, in selfe manner it tooke him in his mounting vp to heauen.

c.B.I.1.c Combined for emphasis with the synonymous ilk, same. Also strengthened by very prefixed. Obs. Cf. same a. 4 and selfsame.

a  1300 Signs bef. Judgem. 96 in E.E.P. (1862) 10 No no tre in erþ so fast‥þat ne sal adun to-berst þilk silue dai er hit be niȝt. a 1300 Cursor M. 22948 O þat ilk seluin euen. 1338 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 61 Þat ilk self ȝere. 1426 Lydg. De Guil. Pilgr. 20934 The same sylue carpenter. c 1460 Towneley Myst. xxviii. 95 Thou grauntt vs for to se The self body and the same the which that died on tre. 1526 Tindale Rom. ii. 1 For thou that iudgest doest euen the same silfe thynges. 1543 Necessary Doctr. L j b, This coniunction‥is the very selfe thing, whiche is signified‥by [etc.]. 1606 L. Bryskett Civ. Life 80 Two gentlemen, subiect to the selfe and same lawes.

d.B.I.1.d one self: one and the same. Obs.

1491 Caxton Vitas Patr. (W. de W. 1495) i. cviii. 135 a/2 He commaunded that in one selfe mesure & weighte all manere of marchaundyses sholde be solde. 1523 Ld. Berners Froiss I. Auth. Pref. 1 Albeit, that mortall folke are marueylously separated,‥yet are they‥compact togyder by thistographier, as it were, the dedes of one selfe cyte. 1561 T. Hoby tr. Castiglione’s Courtyer iv. (1577) X iv b, And it maye be sayd, that Good and beautifull be after a sorte one selfe thing. 1598 Florio, Germano, a brother of one selfe father and mother. 1601 Shakes. Twel. N. i. i. 39. 1607 R. C[arew] tr. Estienne’s World of Wonders 131 They will not quite despaire, that one selfe man should be a lawyer and a Christian. 1624 Quarles Job Milit. Med. xvii. N 3, Whirling like fire-balles in their restlesse spheares, At one selfe⁓instant moouing seuerall wayes. [1877 Tennyson Harold v. ii, Of one self-stock at first, Make them again one people—Norman, English; And English, Norman.]

†2.B.I.2 absol. With def. art. (The) same person or thing. Obs.

c  897 K. Ælfred Gregory’s Past. C. xliv. 322 Ne laða ðærto no ðine friend,‥ne ðine weleᴁan neahᴁeburas, ðylæs hie ðe don ðæt selfe. c 1000 Ælfric Metr. Lives Saints IV. 352 Nelle þu leng beon hohful be þinre dohter eufrosinan soðlice ic earme eom sio sylfe. 1390 Gower Conf. I. 84 He‥is that selve of whom men speke, Which wol noght bowe er that he breke. a 1400–50 Bk. Curtasye 776 in Babees Bk. 325 Ȝif þe baken mete be colde, as may byfalle, A gobet of þo self he sayes with-alle. 1423 Jas. I Kingis Q. clxi, A mantill‥That furrit was with ermyn full quhite, Degoutit with the self In spottis blake. 1486 Bk. St. Albans, Hunting e i b, And when he hath in the toppe .iii. of the selue Then ye shall call hym trochid an hert of .xij. 1532 Acc. Ld. High Treas. Scot. (1905) VI. 76 Ane doublat with ane lang geit of the self.

3. a.B.I.3.a Of a colour: The same throughout, uniform. (See also self-colour.) Often prefixed to adjs. denoting colour (sometimes hyphened), as self russet, self silver. Cf. self-black.

1601 Holland Pliny xxxii. vii. II. 439 In a peece of selfe russet cloth (such as is made of blacke wooll as it came in the fleece from the sheepe). 1851 B’ham & Midl. Gardeners’ Mag. May 71 A third [prize], to Mr. Sharp, for one [sc. seedling] named Purity, a self-white. 1898 Ladies’ Field 6 Aug. 378/2 The chinchillas or self-silvers [i.e. cats]; the latter is undoubtedly the correct name.‥ The self-silvers are a fine collection. 1905 Daily Chron. 12 July 3/2 The border carnation Miss Willmott, a beautiful self brick-red flower of a quite distinct shade. 1906 Westm. Gaz. 10 May 2/1 Not in one self-tint, not spotted, but in tiny squares.

b.B.I.3.b Self-coloured.

1852 Beck’s Florist 200 A stand of finely-grown Carnations‥was disqualified, owing to its having a self petal. 1902 Westm. Gaz. 29 Mar. 4/3 A new variety of self carnation. 1930 R. A. Fisher Genet. Theory Nat. Selection vii. 165 In rats, the hooded (black and white) pattern is a simple recessive to the ‘self’ or ‘solid’ coloration. 1950 Sun (Baltimore) 7 Jan. 22/7 The ‘self’ pigeon‥has a solid color while the ‘barred’ has a blue background with black bars across the wing.

4.B.I.4 Of whiskey: Not blended.

1904 Dundee Advertiser 20 Aug. 5 In the market for self⁓whiskies there has been a pronounced want of activity.

II.B.II Senses related to the pronominal use.

5. a.B.II.5.a Of a portion of an instrument: Of one piece with the instrument itself.

1888 Bell Later Age of Stone 19 The second is a solid tool with a self-handle and is well able to make holes in wood.

b.B.II.5.b Of a trimming: Of the same material as the garment itself; spec. in self belt, self-fabric.

1904 Daily Chron. 3 May 8/2 A new‥crêpe that is being shown‥is striped with its own material, and the stripe has a knot a frequent intervals which‥makes, as it were, a self-trimming. Ibid. 5 May 8/3 Finished with self-ruffles edged with narrow lace. 1960 Times 21 Jan. 14/4 Jackets had either let-in or low-placed self belts. 1961 Guardian 28 Feb. 7/4 Jacket caught at the hips by a self-fabric belt. 1969 Sears Catal. Spring/Summer 10 Shower-resistant coat features self-fabric yoke for added protection. 1979 Daily Tel. 13 Feb. 15/1 (Advt.), Soft shirt dress‥—no waist seams and self belt.

6.B.II.6 Of a bow: Made all of one piece: in contradistinction to backed. Also in quasi-comb. (usually hyphened) self-lance, self-yew, applied attrib. to designate a self bow made of lance or yew (also with ellipsis of bow).

1801 T. Roberts Eng. Bowman 135 Back’d bows‥were deemed so much preferable to self-bows, that [etc.]. Ibid. note, Yet many excellent archers give the preference to the self-yew-bow. 1840 G. A. Hansard Bk. Archery 344 In selecting a bow, whether backed or self, the modern archer has little occasion to exercise critical acumen. 1897 Encycl. Sport I. 40/2 (Archery.) Bows are called ‘Self’ if made of one piece of wood, and ‘Backed’ if made of two or more strips of wood glued together. Self-bows are generally made of yew or lance, though the term as applied to those made of the former wood is misleading, as they are almost invariably spliced at the handle. Self-yew is the dearest bow made, self-lance the cheapest.

†7.B.II.7 Mining. Of a rock, etc.: Detached, of material different from its surroundings. Obs.

1747 Hooson Miner’s Dict. Q 4, Many times a Vein will carry two Ribbs, and softness between them, and often self Lumps. 1824 J. Mander Derbysh. Miners’ Gloss. 60 A self rock or stone that often lies in the middle of a vein so as to cut or divide it into two branches. 1829 Glover Hist. Derby I. 49 Large stones, rounded by attrition, are called bolders; but if they retain the original shape and angles of the block, they are called self-stones. 1855 Phillips Geol. Gloss., Self⁓stone, blocks of stone lying detached at, or not far below, the surface. A north of England term sometimes applied to solitary boulders = ‘earth-fast’.

†8.B.II.8 Own, peculiar. (See A. 3 c.) Obs.

C.C n. I.C.I From the pronoun.
[This use originated in early ME., when mi(n, þi(n, his self (see myself, thyself, himself) began to be substituted for the two varieties of combinations of pers. pron. + self which were current in OE. (see A. 2–4).
The subst. use appears to have been developed chiefly from collocations in which the OE. masc. and neut. genitive selfes admitted of being taken as the genitive of a neuter n. Thus in his selfes, Godes selfes, it was easy to interpret selfes as a n. governing the preceding genitive, instead of as a pronominal adj. in concord with it. The same liability to change in the grammatical apprehension of the word existed also in the examples of the curious construction (shared by OE. with ON. and OHG.) by which a poss. pron. when followed by the genitive of self became assimilated in inflexion to that word, instead of retaining the form demanded by the syntax of the sentence: e.g. in ic ontýne mínes (for mínne) sylfes múð. (The same ‘attraction’ occurred in the fem., as in mínre selfre, and in the plural, as úrra selfra; but this has no bearing on the origin of self n.)
Another influence which contributed to the development of the n. was that of ME. her self, in which her, originally dative, was coincident in form with the genitive.
Although the subst. use of the pronoun thus appears to have originated in morphological processes, it came to supply a need of expression which has been felt and variously supplied in some other langs.; cf., e.g. Ger. selbst n., which is an application of selbst adv. (earlier selbes, orig. the genitive of the pron.).]

1.C.I.1 (The pronominal notion expressed subst.) a.C.I.1.a Preceded by a possessive pronoun, with which it forms a combination serving as a reflexive or an emphatic personal pronoun. Often qualified by an adj., either emphasizing, as my own self, his very self, or descriptive, as your dear self, her sweet self, our two selves, etc.
For examples of my, thy, her, our, your self (selves), see myself, thyself, etc. The 16th c. use of myself, thyself, with a vb. in the 3rd person seems to belong more properly to the n. than to the compound pron. (Cf. myself 4.) For his self, their selves, see himself, themselves.

c  1205 [see myself 1 β]. 12‥ Moral Ode 15 (Egerton MS.) in E.E.P. (1862) 23 Ne beo þe leure þan þi [older texts þe] self þi mei ne þi moȝe [etc.]. a 1300 E.E. Psalter (Surtees) xxxv. 2 Þe un-rightwis saide with tunge hisse, Þat in his self noght gilt in isse. c 1400 Rule of St. Benet (verse) 577 Oure awn self we sal deny, And folow oure lord god al-myghty. c 1450 Mirk’s Festial 4 As moche þonke I kan you for þat ȝe dydden to þe lest of myn, as ȝe hadden don hit to myn owne selfe. c 1475 Rauf Coilȝear 638 Gif thow will not seik him, my awin self sall. c 1530 Tindale Pathw. Script. Wks. (1573) 381/2 As a stone cast vp into the ayre commeth downe naturally of his owne selfe with all the violence and swyng of his owne wayght. 1587 W. Gifford in Cath. Rec. Soc. Publ. V. 143 Premised commendations to your good self & to the bulchen my cousin. c 1590 Greene Fr. Bacon x. 78 Give me but ten days’ respite, and I will reply, Which or to whom myself affectionates. 1596 Spenser F.Q. vi. vii. 39 And eeke that angry foole‥did with his smarting toole Oft whip her dainty selfe. 1601 Shakes. Jul. C. i. ii. 96 But for my single selfe, I had as liefe not be, as [etc.]. 1651 Stanhope in Prestwich’s Poems To Author, But why translate, gild, hatch, why not appear Thy solid self. 1690 Norris Beatitudes (1692) 46 There are some men‥that would see the whole World in Flames without any concern, were but their own little selves secure from the Ruin. 1732 Mandeville Enq. Orig. Hon. 39 There is nothing which he has so constantly before his eyes as his own dear self. 1737 Whiston Josephus, Antiq. xix. i. §19 He lies now dead, as perishing by his own self. 1745 Life Bamfylde-Moore Carew 64 Entertaining them in a most florid Manner with the sovereign Virtues of his Pills, Plaisters, and Self. 1749 C. Wesley Hymns, ‘And have I measur’d’ xii, Till He his glorious Self reveals, The Veil is on my Heart. 1816 Scott Antiq. xxiv, We’ll gang quietly about our job our twa sells, and naebody the wiser for’t. 1824 Byron Juan xvi. ciii, Their hideous wives, their horrid selves and dresses. 1846 Tennyson Literary Squabbles iii, Who‥strain to make an inch of room For their sweet selves. 1875 Jowett Plato (ed. 2) I. 233 If the discussion were confined to your two selves. 1884 C. F. Woolson in Harper’s Mag. Feb. 375/2 The installment of our twelve selves in these‥carriages.

b.C.I.1.b Preceded by a n. in the possessive, with which it forms a combination having the sense now expressed by the n. + himself, herself, itself, etc., and formerly by the n. + self in concord with it.
Self may be qualified by an adj. as in 1 a.

a  1300 Cursor M. 12248 A tregetur i hope he be, Or elles godds self [later MSS. god him self] es he. 1473 Acc. Ld. High Treas. Scot. I. 33 Deliuerit to the Qwenis selue be Andro Balfour. 1536 Wriothesley in St. Papers Hen. VIII, I. 490 His Grace‥liketh both thordre therof, and the thinges self, excedingly wel. 1542 Udall Erasm. Apoph. 141 For that thei abused the kynges selfes. 1590 Spenser F.Q. iii. iii. 46 Ne shall the Saxons selves all peaceably Enioy the crowne. 1607 Cowell Interpr., Purgation (Purgatio) is a cleering of a mans selfe from a crime, whereof he is probably and publiquely suspected. 1634 Milton Comus 375 And Wisdoms self Oft seeks to sweet retired Solitude. 1667 ― P.L. ix. 388 She‥like a Wood-nymph‥of Delia’s Traine, Betook her to the Groves, but Delia’s self In gate surpass’d. 1704 Pope Windsor For. 223 Not Neptune’s self from all her streams receives A wealthier tribute than to thine he gives. 1785 Burns Epist. to J. L―k 1 Apr. viii, Yet crooning to a body’s sel, Does weel eneugh. 1814 Scott Ld. of Isles v. iv, ‘Tis Edith’s self!—her speechless woe, Her form, her looks, the secret show! 1816 J. Wilson City of Plague i. i. 405 Though dark his brain It has, thou seest, an heavenly visitor That comfort brings when reason’s self is gone. 1837 Carlyle Fr. Rev. II. i. i, Nay, Sire, were it not better you, your Majesty’s self, took the children? 1855 Kingsley Westw. Ho! xvi, Elizabeth’s self consecrated her solemnly. 1871 R. Ellis Catullus xliv. 21 Not me That read the volume—no, but him, The man’s vain self.

†c.C.I.1.c the self = itself. Chiefly Sc. Obs.

a  1340 Hampole Psalter iv. 6 Þe offrand of rightwisnes is a sorowful gast, punyschand þe self for synne. c 1400 Mandeville (Roxb.) vii. 24 In Egipte er bot fewe castelles, for þe cuntree es strang ynogh of þe self. 1409 in Exch. Rolls Scot. IV. p. ccix, This endenture‥purportis in the self and beris witnes that [etc.]. 1434 Misyn Mending of Life i. (1896) 107 For fayrnes soyne is lufyd, & qwhen it felis þe self lofyd, lightly it is chirischyd. 1475 in 3rd Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm. 418/1 The dowme‥is false, and rottyn in the self, be cause it is gyffyn expresse in the contrare of the cursse of comone lawe. 1492 Rolls of Parlt. VI. 446/2 It is a doubt, whedre, the said V mark, be parcell of the Manor of Haveryng, or a somme by the self, and no parcell of the said Manor. 1513 Douglas Æneis i. Pref. 119 Nocht for our toung is in the selfin scant. 1525 Sampson in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. iii. I. 355 And as concerning the interception off the lettirs they esteme it, Sir, for a very grevos matir, as well for the deade off the selff, as the rumor that schuld aryse off the sam to the enemies. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 269 But this hye ioye and iubile of the spiryt‥can not be expressed with tonge, as it is in the selfe, but the effect that it leueth behynde it sheweth‥what it was. 1570 in R. Bannatyne’s Memor. (1836) 56 Becaus I sie‥my voce is not able to straicht the self vnto the earis of the multitud heir convenit, I wilbe content [etc.]. 1580 in Sc. Bks. Discipl. etc. (1621) 18 The whole Assembly of the Kirk‥declares the same pretended office [of bishop]‥unlawfull in the selfe. 1605 His Majesty’s Sp. etc. E 4, To so hatefull and vnheard of inuention there can be no greater enemy than the selfe. c 1614 Mure Dido & Æn. i. 470 The subtle air‥In solide substance did the self congeale.

d.C.I.1.d Sc. the sell o’ it, itself. the sell o’ ye, yourself. ? Obs.

1818 Scott Rob Roy xxvi, The College didna get gude £600 a-year out o’ bishops’ Rents‥nor yet a lease o’ the Archbishoprick o’ Glasgow the sell o’t. 1818 ― Hrt. Midl. ix, I ken nae friend‥that’s been sae like a father to him as the sell o’ ye, neibor Deans.

e.C.I.1.e In generalized sense.

1826 Disraeli Viv. Grey i. x. 63 Self is the only person whom we know nothing about.

2.C.I.2 transf. in various uses, †esp. a person whom one loves as oneself or is a counterpart of oneself (obs. exc. in other self, second self: see second a.).

1605 1st Pt. Jeronimo ii. iv. 49 Welcome, my selfe of selfe. 1671 H. M. tr. Erasm. Colloq. 4 Heavens grant you a safe return. God keep thee my half self. a 1700 Ken Hymnotheo Poet. Wks. 1721 III. 115 But when the Babe breaks out into the Light, Soon as her little self is in her sight,‥She feels a Mother’s Bowels yearn within. 1763 C. Johnston Reverie II. 133 The tender connexions of nature, which, as it were, multiply a man into many selfs for the safety of each dear particular of whom, his anxiety is greater than for his own. 1771 H. Walpole Vertue’s Anecd. Paint. (1786) III. 139 My dear heart and self and son Charles. 1827 Hood Mids. Fairies xliv, We shall not die nor disappear, But, in these other selves ourselves succeed. 1858 Stanley Life Arnold I. iii. 89 Our ‘great self’, the school.

3.C.I.3 Chiefly Philos. That which in a person is really and intrinsically he (in contradistinction to what is adventitious); the ego (often identified with the soul or mind as opposed to the body); a permanent subject of successive and varying states of consciousness.

a  1674 Traherne Poet. Wks. (1903) 49 A secret self I had enclos’d within, That was not bounded with my clothes or skin. 1682 Sir T. Browne Chr. Mor. i. §24 The noblest Digladiation is in the Theater of our selves. 1690 Locke Hum. Und. ii. xxvii. §9 Since consciousness always accompanies thinking, and ’tis that, that makes every one be, what he calls self. Ibid. §17 Self is that conscious thinking thing, whatever Substance, made up of Spiritual, or Material, Simple, or Compounded, it matters not, which is sensible, or conscious of Pleasure and Pain,‥and so is concern’d for it self, as far as that consciousness extends. 1713 Berkeley Hylas & P. iii. Wks. 1871 I. 329, I, one and the same self, perceive both colours and sounds. 1862 Spencer First Princ. i. iii. §20 (1875) 65 If, then, the object perceived is self, what is the subject that perceives? or if it is the true self which thinks, what other self can it be that is thought of? 1865 J. H. Newman Dream Ger. 5th Choir, Praise to the Holiest, God’s Presence and His very Self And Essence all⁓divine. 1865 Mill Exam. Hamilton 207 Reid seems to have imagined that if I myself am only a series of feelings, the proposition that I have any fellow-creatures, or that there are any selves except mine, is but words without a meaning. 1866 Duke of Argyll Reign of Law i. (1867) 8 But these selves of ours do belong to Nature. 1871 Meredith H. Richmond lv, In reality the busy little creature within me, whom we call self, was digging pits for comfort to flow in, of any kind, in any form. 1877 E. R. Conder Bas. Faith iv. 184 But Self does not come and go; it abides. Self, therefore, is not a phenomenon, nor yet a bundle of phenomena. 1899 Allbutt’s Syst. Med. VIII. 267 Insanity has been already defined as defect or disorder of the process of adjustment of self to circumstances. Ibid. 288 So long as the ‘self’ is not implicated in what is done by the body, the self is not responsible and cannot justly be punished. 1909 Chesterton Orthodoxy iii. 63 You cannot call up any wilder vision than a city in which men ask themselves if they have any selves.

4. a.C.I.4.a What one is at a particular time or in a particular aspect or relation; one’s nature, character, or (sometimes) physical constitution or appearance, considered as different at different times. Chiefly with qualifying adj., (one’s) old self, former self, later self.

1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. iii. 160 In vain he burns‥And in himself his former self requires. a 1711 Ken Div. Love Wks. (1838) 282 My duty of loving those best, which either in blood are nearest my natural self, or in grace nearest my Christian self. 1746 Francis tr. Horace, Epist. i. x. 66 If e’r, forgetful of my former Self, I toil to raise unnecessary Pelf. 1841 C. Fox Jrnl. 30 Sept. (1972) 115 Dr. Calvert‥was quite his old self, talking on his old subjects in his old way. 1858 O. W. Holmes Aut. Breakf.-t. ix. (1859) 211 How pleasant it would be, if in another state of being we could have shapes like our former selves for playthings. 1910 ‘Mark Rutherford’ Pages fr. Jrnl. (ed. 2) 268 The self of two hours before seemed to confront him. 1975 H. Fleetwood Picture of Innocence x. 177 You seem quite like your old self again.

b.C.I.4.b An assemblage of characteristics and dispositions which may be conceived as constituting one of various conflicting personalities within a human being. better self: the better part of one’s nature.

1595 Spenser Amoretti xlv. 3 And in my selfe, my inward selfe I meane, Most liuely lyke behold your semblant trew. a 1703 Burkitt On N.T. Mark xii. 34 Every man may, yea, ought to love himself: not his sinful self, but his natural self: especially his spiritual self, the new nature in him. 1820 Keats Lamia 170 In self despite, Against his better self. 1849 Sir J. Stephen Eccl. Biog., I. Taylor II. 389 So, indeed, resolved the Self inhabiting one of the phrenological hemispheres within me. But the resolution was ultimately reversed by the superior energy of the Self who reigned over the opposite hemisphere. 1866 G. Macdonald Ann. Q. Neighb. vii. (1878) 125 Whatever your lowest self, and not your best self may like. 1867 Goldw. Smith 3 Eng. Statesmen (1882) 45 Our nation‥had to go through greater trials, and be thrown more upon its nobler self, before it could deserve victory. 1908 R. Bagot A. Cuthbert x. 116 Sonia di San Vico was asking herself whether this were love.‥ For the first time in her life that other self of hers gave no satisfactory reply.

5.C.I.5 One’s personal welfare and interests as an object of concern; chiefly in bad sense, selfish or self-interested motives, selfishness.

a  1680 Charnock Attrib. God (1682) 70 Self is the great Anti-Christ and Anti-God in the World. 1725 Watts Logic ii. iii. §3 Were it not for this Influence of Self and a Bigotry to our own Tenets, we could hardly imagine that so many‥wicked‥Principles should pretend to support and defend themselves by the Gospel of Christ. 1782 F. Burney Cecilia viii. iii, But self will still predominate. 1842 Tennyson Locksley Hall 34 Love‥Smote the chord of Self, that, trembling, passed in music out of sight. 1855 Kingsley Westw. Ho! ii, One who had long since learned to have no self, and to live not only for her children, but in them. 1859 Geo. Eliot A. Bede liv, She’s better than I am—there’s less o’ self in her, and pride. 1870 Mozley Univ. Serm. iii. (1877) 67 This respect to self and its ultimate good pertains to the very nobility of man’s nature. 1906 C. Mansfield Girl & Gods xix, Self is their god and Selfishness their religion.

II.C.II From the adjective.

6.C.II.6 (Cf. B. 3 b.) a.C.II.6.a A ‘self-coloured’ flower: esp. applied to carnations.

1852 G. W. Johnson Cottage Gard. Dict., Self, a flower with petals of only one colour. 1869 Contemp. Rev. XI. 149 Some of her characters are too much what a florist would call ‘selfs’—all one colour. 1892 Garden 27 Aug. 194/2 The majority of present-day kinds [of Carnations]—I allude chiefly to garden selfs—are‥scentless.

b.C.II.6.b Something (as an animal or garment) of a single colour.

1930 R. A. Fisher Genet. Theory Nat. Selection vii. 165 Rats of both selected lines were bred back to unselected selfs. 1978 Lochaber News 31 Mar. 2/1 (Advt.), ‘Dereta’ coats, superb collection of tweeds and selfs in a variety of fabrics, designs and colours.

7.C.II.7 A self bow. (See B. 6.)

1856 H. A. Ford Archery iii. 14 Ascham‥mentions none other than selfs.

D.D -self in compound pronouns. For the diverse grammatical character (partly adj., partly n.) of this element in myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself, and for illustration of the emphatic and the reflexive functions of these words, see the several articles. Certain phraseological uses common to the whole group in their capacity of reflexive pronouns may conveniently be noticed here.

1.D.1 to be ―self: a.D.1.a colloq. To be in (one’s) normal condition of body or mind; to be in (its) accustomed state. Also to feel like ―self.
For other examples see himself 3 b, myself 4 b, themselves 2 b.

1849 Macaulay Hist. Eng. v. I. 644 The chief justice was all himself. His spirits rose higher and higher as the work went on. 1884 Daily News 23 May 5/3 Mr. Grace was all himself [at cricket].

b.D.1.b To act according to one’s true character, without hypocrisy or constraint.

1864 [see myself 4]. 1896 ‘M. Field’ Attila i. 26 Only the courage seems impiety For just a girl to dare to be herself.

2.D.2 The refl. pron. assumes in certain contexts the sense: The normal condition (of the person or thing). So to come to ―self (come v. 45 h), to bring, restore to ―self. out of ―self (? now rare), †from ―self, beside ―self (see beside prep. 5 a): out of (one’s) mind or senses, deranged.

a  1450 Knt. de La Tour iii. (1906) 6 And he was so sore afraied and aferde, that he ranne awaie as he had be oute of hym selff. c 1489 Caxton Blanchardyn xii. 43 She fell doune from her ain beere as a woman from her self and in a swone. 1659 B. Harris Parival’s Iron Age 17 France being‥restored to her self, as well by the help of forreigners, as of her Neighbours. 1727 Swift Furth. Acc. E. Curll Misc. 1732 III. 30, I never perceived he was out of himself, till that melancholy Day that he thought he was poison’d in a Glass of Sack. 1846 Digby Broad Stone Hon. II. Tancredus 301 A novice of the order of St. Francis being now almost out of himself, struggling with death cried out [etc.]. 1856 C. M. Yonge Daisy Chain i. xix. (1879) 192 But Tom, who seemed fairly out of himself, would not stir.

3.D.3 by ―self: alone, without society; unaided; separately. See by prep.

c  888 K. Ælfred Boeth. xxxv. §6 Ne mæᴁ nan oðru ᴁesceaft be him selfum bion. a 1300 Cursor M. 1714 Þe meke [beist] be þam ai tua and tua, Þe wild do be þam-self al-sua. c 1386 Chaucer Reeve’s T. 222 Noght from his owene bed ten foot or twelue His doghter hadde a bed al by hir selue Right in the same chambre by and by. 1448 in Willis & Clark Cambridge (1886) II. 8 All the bemes that lyen by hemself. c 1449 Pecock Repr. v. xv. 564 Aȝens this‥is maad a book by him silf clepid the Book of Faith. 1573 Treas. Hid. Secrets xiii, This wise you may make Marmalade of wardens, peares, apples &c‥everyone by himself. 1581 G. Pettie tr. Guazzo’s Civ. Conv. i. (1586) 17 b, It is dailie seene that a man being by himselfe is fearefull, and being in companie, is couragious. 1610 Shakes. Temp. i. ii. 221 The Kings sonne haue I landed by himself. 1711 Addison Spect. No. 12 ⁋3, I am mistaken if he ventures to go to Bed by himself this Twelve-month. 1857 Mrs. Carlyle Lett. II. 308 Mr. C. dines all by himself at present, I merely looking on. 1889 Saintsbury Ess. Eng. Lit. (1891) 65 If Hogg in some lucky moment did really ‘write it all by himself’, as the children say.
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Additions 1993

Add: [C.] [I.]C.I [4.] c.C.I.4.c Immunol. Matter which is regarded by an individual’s immune system as a normal constituent of that individual and is therefore not subject to attack by it.

[1948 Burnet & Fenner in Heredity II. 318 There are enzymic groups adapted genetically to ‘fit’ a sufficient number of marker constituents to allow differentiation of ‘self’ from ‘foreign’‥organic material.] 1965 Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. CXXIV. 10 The reaction is against self-antigen which is not recognized as ‘self’. 1967 [see immunologic adj. s.v. immunology n.]. 1983 Oxf. Textbk. Med. I. iv. 42/1 The marked biological diversity of self-antigens, together with the complexity of the cellular organization of the immune system, and the damaging potential of immune reactivity towards self. 1987 Sci. Amer. May 70/3 If a foreign peptide matches the sequence at the crucial sites‥the T cell sees the sequence as ‘self’ and does not respond.

 

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